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Crystal Mountain

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Crystal Mountain

The Crystal Mountain is a crown that adorns the white desert, and it is one of the richest treasures of the Farafra Oasis , It is a single mound composed of more than 12 types of crystal-like stones fused together to form a stunning natural appearance.

The mountain was distinguished as one of the most beautiful natural areas in the White Desert Reserve. It is a mountain consisting of crystal rocks and is unique in its kind, where the shiny crystal pieces are considered one of the precious rocks that have no equal in the world, and it has become one of the most important tourist attractions in particular because it contains The most beautiful, enchanting views of nature.

The metamorphic limestone rocks are the first point on the way to enter the reserve, and in front of it is a large sign that includes all available information about it.

White Desert

It is called the White Desert because it has a white color that covers most of its parts, and its total area is 3010 square kilometers. The White Desert is a reserve of deserts and landscapes, as it represents a model of the karst kama phenomenon. It is an open museum for the study of the desert environment, geographical phenomena, fossils and wildlife, and contains antiquities of prehistoric times. The reserve is characterized by the beauty of the sand dunes, the geological formations of the white limestone and chalk rocks, and the fossils they contain.

Black Desert

The Black Desert is a desert located in Egypt in the New Valley Governorate. The Black Desert is a little north of the White Desert , The mountains eroded to cover the desert with a layer of black powder and rock, giving the place its name. At the edge of the Black Desert there are black volcanic hills that erupted ages ago and brought out a volcanic substance called jasper, the material from which black rocks are made. Climb the English mountain, which is the highest peak in the Black Desert, and you will enjoy an enchanting view of this beautiful scenery .

The reason for its name is the Black Desert. Of course, the name of this desert came from its mountains and plateaus covered with black powder, due to the remnants of volcanic eruptions that dried up over millions of years.

Hatshepsut Temple

Queen Hatshepsut (about 1473 – 1458 BC), the queen who received the title of Pharaoh, built a magnificent temple in Deir el-Bahari, on the west bank in Luxor, facing the Karnak Temple, the main sanctuary of Amun located on the east bank. The Temple of Hatshepsut was named In the ancient Egyptian “Gesro Bridge”, meaning the holiest of sanctities, it was designed by Senmut, who bore the title of chief cupbearer of Amun.

The temple consists of three levels, each containing a row of columns at its end, and in the upper level, an open courtyard is located behind its row of columns, preceded by statues of Hatshepsut in the form of Osiris, the god of the dead.

Jisro Bridge is considered a funerary temple for Queen Hatshepsut, where rituals are held for her after her death when she transforms into the state of Osiris. Open to the sky, dedicated to the sun god “Ra Hor Akhti”, and there is a great place dedicated to Amun, and at the end of the upper courtyard, on the main axis of the temple, a path was cut in the mountain that ends with the Holy of Holies.

The walls of the temple were covered with scenes representing the rituals of the temple, and religious holidays, as well as the transfer of obelisks from the quarries to the Karnak Temple. And its houses, as well as the surrounding environment, in addition to the wealth and exotic animals that the Egyptians brought with them from there, and on the other hand, it was depicted how Hatshepsut became the legitimate king of the country, not only by confirming the appointment of her father Thutmose I as his legitimate heir, but that her father is the god Amun. Himself.


Valley Of The Kings

The kings of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth dynasties of the New Kingdom (about 1550 – 1069 BC) were buried in a dry river valley on the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes (modern Luxor), hence its name Valley of the Kings, but this name is not Quite accurate since some members of the royal family other than kings were buried there, as well as some non-royal, albeit high-ranking individuals. The Valley of the Kings is divided into the eastern and western valleys. The eastern part is the most famous between them, where the western valley contains a few tombs, and the Valley of the Kings in total contains more than sixty tombs in addition to twenty unfinished tombs that are no more than pits.

This site for the burial of kings was carefully chosen; It is located on the western bank of the Nile, because the sun god descends (dies) on the western horizon in order to be reborn, and rejuvenate on the eastern horizon, and for this reason the West was associated with funerary concepts and ancient Egyptian tombs were generally located on the western bank of the Nile for this reason

The secluded nature of this valley was another reason for choosing it as the last resting place for kings. Tombs were stolen in antiquity, and to avoid that fate, as happened to the pyramids of the Old and Middle Kingdom, they chose hidden underground tombs in a secluded desert valley. The first ruler of the modern state whose burial in the Valley of the Kings was confirmed was Tuthmosis I (circa 1504-1492 BC), the third king of the Eighteenth Dynasty. According to Eni, the chief digger of his tomb: “I supervised the excavation of his [king] tomb in privacy, no one sees And nobody hears.”

Philae Temble

The island of Philae was of great importance to the ancient Egyptian due to its distinguished location; Where it and the island of Aswan formed natural geographical borders, and was known in the Egyptian texts as the dividing line. As for the word “Phil” it is derived from the Greek word “Phila” meaning beloved, and it was known in Arabic literature as “Anas al-Wujud” due to its connection to folklore stories, and it has succeeded The efforts of the Nuba Archeology Rescue Fund to transfer the entire antiquities of the island to the neighboring island of Agilika.

The “Temple of Isis” is the main temple on the island, occupying a quarter of its area. It was built by King Ptolemy II in the place of another smaller temple that was also dedicated to Isis and dedicated to the soldiers charged with protecting the southern borders of Egypt, and many Ptolemaic kings contributed to its construction.

On the island there is also a temple dedicated to the worship of Hathor, in addition to the chapel of “Nakhtenbo I”, as well as the chapel of “Taharqa”, which he also built for Isis.

Abu Simbel Temples

The Temple of Abu Simbel dates back to the era of King “Ramses II” (1279-1212 BC). It was digged in a high sandstone plateau 4 km south of their current location, to which they were moved in a campaign to save the monuments of Nubia after the construction of the High Dam in 1960 AD.

The site of Abu Simbel includes two temples, the Great Abu Simbel Temple, which was dedicated to the cult of “Ra Hor Akhti” and “Amon Ra” Ptah and the king himself, and the small Abu Simbel temple, which is located 100 meters from the first temple, which was dedicated to the goddess Hathor and Queen Nefertari, the main wife of the king.

The importance of the great Abu Simbel temple is due to its association with the phenomenon of the sun perpendicular to the face of the statue of Pharaoh Ramses II twice a year. The first coincides with his birthday, October 22, and the second on February 22, the day of his coronation.




Luxor Temble

The ancient Egyptian called it “Ibt Rasit”, meaning the southern sanctuary, where his wife Mott resides, to distinguish him from the Karnak temple located to the north of it. The credit for its construction is attributed to King Amenhotep III, and dedicated to the worship of “Amun Ka Mut F”, one of the images of the god Amun, to whom Amenhotep III belonged to prove his entitlement to the throne, and recorded this on the walls of the sacred birth room. King Ramses II added an open courtyard and edifice. There are also booths dating back to the era of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III. Alexander the Great also left traces of him inside the temple. Luxor Temple is linked to Karnak Temple through the great procession road, which is flanked on both sides by statues of King Nectanebo I in the form of the Sphinx.




Karnak Temble
Karnak Temble

It is the largest and most important Egyptian temple. The ancient Egyptians called it “Ibt Sut”, which means “the chosen spot for the thrones of Amun”; Where he dedicated to the worship of the god Amun the head of the Holy Trinity of Thebes with Mut and Khonsu. It consists of a group of temples and architectural elements built by the kings of ancient Egypt from the era of the Middle Kingdom to the Ptolemaic era, surrounded by a huge wall of mud bricks, and preceded by a port to the west. Recently discovered Ptolemaic and Roman baths in front of the first pylon.

Karnak includes the temple of the goddess Mut, which can be reached through the eastern rams road from the tenth edifice of the Karnak temple, surrounded by the holy lake from the east, south and west.

The temple was dedicated to the goddess Mut, the wife of Amun-Re and the mother of the god Khonsu. It was built by Amenhotep III and the kings added several additions to it until the Ptolemaic era. The temple includes within its walls two small temples; The first was dedicated to the god Khonsu and dates back to the era of the Eighteenth Dynasty, while the second was dedicated to the worship of the god Amun and dates back to the era of Ramses III.

The temple begins with a pylon and then a courtyard with several statues of the goddess “Sekhmet”, which is depicted in the form of a lady with a lioness’s head, an image of the goddess Mut, then we reach another courtyard for columns, then the hall of the saints, followed by the Holy of Holies.​

Bn Izraa
Bn Izraa

Ben Ezra Synagogue is one of the Egyptian synagogues. It is located in the Fustat area (the Old Cairo district). It is considered one of the largest and most important, especially with the Egyptian government taking care of it, restoring it, and turning it into a tourist attraction. And given that his library contains valuable Jewish books and periodicals that chronicle the existence of the Jewish community in Egypt.

The temple is the oldest temple in Cairo. And Jewish stories tell that Moses had chosen a place for prayer next to the Nile in what was later known as Fustat.


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