The Temple of Abu Simbel dates back to the era of King “Ramses II” (1279-1212 BC). It was digged in a high sandstone plateau 4 km south of their current location, to which they were moved in a campaign to save the monuments of Nubia after the construction of the High Dam in 1960 AD.
The site of Abu Simbel includes two temples, the Great Abu Simbel Temple, which was dedicated to the cult of “Ra Hor Akhti” and “Amon Ra” Ptah and the king himself, and the small Abu Simbel temple, which is located 100 meters from the first temple, which was dedicated to the goddess Hathor and Queen Nefertari, the main wife of the king.
The importance of the great Abu Simbel temple is due to its association with the phenomenon of the sun perpendicular to the face of the statue of Pharaoh Ramses II twice a year. The first coincides with his birthday, October 22, and the second on February 22, the day of his coronation.